Rogers E Miller (1971)
'An idea, practice or object perceived as new by the relevant unit of adoption, whether it is an individual or an organization'
'An effort to introduce a practice in order to bring about a social change. The practice need not be totally new: its efficeincy and potentiality in a new context are the main criteria used in labelling is as innovation. The emphaisi is on change in terms providing a strategy to deal with specific local or national problem'
The characteristics of an innovation that predict a high probability of success are implicit in the following questions:
1. Relative advantage (compare with what exists)
* Will it be more effective in improving learning?
* Will it be conserve resources more effeciently?
* Will it have a position impact on the total programme?
2. Compatibility (consistent with values, xperiences, needs)
* Will it fit well with other aspects of the programme?
* Will it be accepted?
3. Testability (can be tried on an experimental basis)
* Has it been tested in schools like ours?
* Can it be pilot-tested?
* Can we use selected parts?
4. Observability (can be seen in action)
* Can we see a live demonstration with children?
* Can we see a videotaped demonstration?
* Can we see variations in its application?
5. Complexity (ease of use)
* Will teachers need special training?
* Will it add to teachers' paperwork?
BARRIES TO CHANGE
Kast & Rosenzweig (1974)
5 major sources of resistance to change:
1. Sunk cost
3. Group norms
4. Threats to the balance of power
5. Great diversity among the subgroups within the organization
Listed some additional barries to change:
* benefits that result from stability, at least to certain groups, and thus resistance to change arises.
ACCEPTABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATION
* Havelock (1973) indicated that teachers in particular tend to resist those innovations that increase their workload. There seems also to be resist those innovations that threaten traditional roles (Shephard, 1967) and require the acquisition of traditional skills or knowledge.
* Lin and Zaltman (1973) have pointed out that less complex innovations are accepted more readily than those of greater complexity. ....complex innovations are more likely to require more money and cause personal discomfort among those affected.......
* Innovation must have a perceived advantage over alternatives if it is to be accepted.
* It is also helpful and perhaps mandatory if the innovation is to be compatible with existing programs and can be demonstrated to suplement or complement them in some manner.
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